Pakistan Perspective <p>Pakistan Perspectives is a bi-annual research journal of the Pakistan Study Centre, University of Karachi. It is a multi-disciplinary journal. The multitude of problems and challenges faced by Pakistan require such a broader approach. Pakistan Perspectives, therefore, provides a forum for debate and discussion on all subjects that come within the scope of Pakistan Studies and lead to a better appreciation of Pakistan’s historical, political, socio-economic and cultural realties.</p> <p>Pakistan Perspectives devotes itself to publish quality research on past, present and future of Pakistan. It would encourage original scholarship, critical thinking, a progressive outlook and a rational balanced focus on all aspects of ours existence as a nation. It invites academia and civil society to engage in dialogue on national issues. It would also invite exploring the indigenous sources of knowledge, history, culture especially the folk wisdom and aspirations of common people.</p> <p>Pakistan Perspectives seeks to advance knowledge about the history and society of Pakistan, based on empirical, theoretical and analytical approaches. It provides a forum for understanding, envisaging and proposing academic solution to all the critical issues faced by citizens of Pakistan in particular.</p> Pakistan Study Centre, University of Karachi en-US Pakistan Perspective 1810-5858 Low Conviction Rate in Pakistan: Causes and Way Forward <p>Conviction rate is the primary indicator through which the efficiency of a criminal justice system can be measured. Unfortunately, Pakistan has a poor conviction rate due to the collective inefficiencies of the Police, the Prosecutors, the Judiciary, and the Lawyers. In this paper, the author has highlighted reasons behind the low conviction rate in three main categories: Crimes against person, Crimes against property, and Crimes under Anti-terrorism Act. The major reasons outlined for low conviction rate are false statements by applicants, flaws in investigation due to limited resources, weak prosecution, and the lack of timely disposal of cases by courts due to overburdened judges. To resolve this problem, holistic changes must be made rather than mere cosmetic changes as the problem is deep rooted in the system.</p> Abdul Latif Copyright (c) 2023 Pakistan Perspective 2022-11-09 2022-11-09 27 1 Prosecuting Human Rights Violations: Prospects, Challenges and Solutions <p>Human rights constitute a set of norms and principles for the treatment of individuals and groups by the states on the basis of standards and principles which a society considers necessary for a quality life. Various contemporary scholars argue that prosecuting human rights violations is necessary and the only solution for the protection of human rights. They have also stated that criminal punishment for human rights violations is the only appropriate measure to enforce international obligations regarding protection of human rights. According to them, it is the duty of the states under the principles of International Human Rights Law (IHRL), International Humanitarian Law (IHL), International Criminal Law (ICL) and customary international law to prosecute human rights violations. Although certain technicalities and complications have been discussed by them, but it has been observed that there should be a balance between the sovereignty of the States, political power and their international obligations regarding protection of human rights under the territories controlled and administered by them. Therefore, this study focuses on the issue that the enforcement of human rights entirely depends on prosecution of human rights violations for which ratification of Rome Statute of International Criminal Court should be made mandatory and a pre-requisite for ratification of all international human rights instruments.</p> Muhammad Sohail Thaheem Saqib Jawad Copyright (c) 2023 Pakistan Perspective 2022-11-09 2022-11-09 27 1 Refugee Sufferings: The Role of the Custodian, Civil Bureaucracy, and Litigation in the Punjab <p>The study focuses on bureaucratic flaws in the post-partition 1947 rehabilitation of refugees in the province of Punjab. It discusses refugees’ evacuee property issues and the litigation they initiated in order to secure the property they believed they were entitled to. Many scholars have discussed refugee rehabilitation and settlement in the Punjab but they have generally neglected institutional manipulations and its repercussions on the third generation of refugees. The study explores why the rehabilitation process in the Punjab took so long and was excruciating experience for the refugees. The Federal government of Pakistan passed laws for establishing an administrative department to facilitate the claims of displaced persons. The portfolio of the Custodian commanded a key position in the department. The laws that should have addressed the grievances of refugees in the Punjab created obstacles for pursuit of property. Influential refugees got their desired allotments, whereas poor refugees were subject to lawsuits. For them, partition brought a never-ending slew of troubles that made their life even more difficult for than the migration from India to Pakistan. The research employs both primary and secondary source material.</p> Tahir Khan Copyright (c) 2023 Pakistan Perspective 2022-11-09 2022-11-09 27 1 FATA Merger-Between Myth and Reality <p>This paper aims to find the changes brought by the merger of the Federally Administered Tribal Area (FATA) into the province of Khyber Pukhtunkhwa. It was expected that there would be peace and prosperity in the region after merger. The central and provincial government would initiate developmental works in the region. Having this expectation, the merger was celebrated throughout the region. But after more than four years since its merger, the hopes of the people have become elusive. The government has not initiated developmental works in the region. The economic packages which were promised to the region have not been paid sincerely. There are ongoing feuds among various tribes and the government has failed in bringing normalcy and peace in the region. Bringing this region into the mainstream is an arduous task and of course, it will take time. But the government needs to fulfill its promises and give special attention to the development of the region.</p> Naik Muhammad Copyright (c) 2023 Pakistan Perspective 2022-11-09 2022-11-09 27 1 Socioeconomic Condition and Challenges of Female Labor Working in Brick Kilns <p>The study explores the plight of women workers working in the brick kilns. It examines the women’s engagement in brick kiln work, their issues, working conditions and proposes the solutions to their problem. For this study, data was collected by using a purposive sampling technique from seven old women (31-50 years) and five young women workers (13-30 years) living in District Vehari, Khanewal, and Machiwal town. A semi-structured interview was conducted for data collection, whereas data was analyzed by using Thematic Analysis. The results revealed that poor socio-economic background, vulnerable due to lack of education and opportunities, family experiences and debt bondage as the main reasons for working in brick kilns. The reported nature of the problems was the physical impact on their health, gender issues, work-related exploitation, and child labor. Regarding the perception of their future lives, hopelessness and unhappiness were reported by the majority, but at the same time, they wanted to change their lives. Respondents demanded financial and structural support as proposed solutions. The government, local civil society, and labor unions should take measures to ensure the implementation of labor laws.</p> Aeman Batool Madiha Nadeem Copyright (c) 2023 Pakistan Perspective 2022-11-09 2022-11-09 27 1 The Rise of Political Awareness and Institutional Development in Balochistan in British Era <p>The awakening of political consciousness in Balochistan came much later as compared to other parts of the subcontinent. This study is primarily focused on the growth of political institutions on account of the rise of political consciousness among natives of Baluchistan. The research method employed is of descriptive and historic. Furthermore, the secondary data has been enumerated to build an argument. The British Indian government was not interested in empowering Balochistan politically due to its vast barren land with a scarcity of population, and security concerns from Russia. Lack of government interest kept this area under developed. Therefore, at the time of partition, Balochistan was the least developed area on all ranks of the development index. This study highlights the causes of political development in Balochistan and its implications at the time of partition.</p> Saima Butt Copyright (c) 2023 Pakistan Perspective 2022-11-09 2022-11-09 27 1 Green Human Resources Management: A Study of Pakistan’s Hotel Industry <p>The Hotel Industry is significant for the growth of tourism sector that has become an important national income source for a country, particularly in emerging and developing economies worldwide. This research aims to evaluate Green Human Resource Management (GHRM) practices adopted by Human Resource managers in three, four, and five-star hotels in Pakistan. It includes recruitment, selection, green training role, paying attention to employees’ needs, green rewards, green pay, green involvement and the performance of the management in creating a comfortable and healthy working environment. The study has applied the Social Exchange theory which provides a solid basis for GHRM activities, as the theory implies a two-sided, mutually contingent, and mutually rewarding process involving transactions or simply exchange. This empirical research is first to analyze the impacts of GHRM practices on millennials employed in Hotel Industry of Pakistan that aims to investigate the correlation between and young employee’s turnover intention in tourism staff. It correlates with tourism sector because employees’ turnover rate is higher in this organization. In order to bridge this void and provide a way forward, particularly in the hotel industry. The results show that there is no moderating influence of the Work Environment (WE) on the correlation between GHRM practices and the turnover intention (TI) of millennials employed in Pakistani hotels.</p> Dr. Muhammad Kamran Khan Prof. Dr. Nusrat Idrees Dr. Seema Manzoor Copyright (c) 2022 Pakistan Perspective 2022-11-09 2022-11-09 27 1 Green Human Resources Management: A Study of Pakistan’s Hotel Industry <p><strong>Green Human Resources Management: A Study of Pakistan’s Hotel Industry</strong></p> Muhammad Kamran Khan Nusrat Idrees Seema Manzoor Copyright (c) 2022 Pakistan Perspective 2022-11-09 2022-11-09 27 1