Pakistan Perspective <p>Pakistan Perspectives is a bi-annual research journal of the Pakistan Study Centre, University of Karachi. It is a multi-disciplinary journal. The multitude of problems and challenges faced by Pakistan require such a broader approach. Pakistan Perspectives, therefore, provides a forum for debate and discussion on all subjects that come within the scope of Pakistan Studies and lead to a better appreciation of Pakistan’s historical, political, socio-economic and cultural realties.</p> <p>Pakistan Perspectives devotes itself to publish quality research on past, present and future of Pakistan. It would encourage original scholarship, critical thinking, a progressive outlook and a rational balanced focus on all aspects of ours existence as a nation. It invites academia and civil society to engage in dialogue on national issues. It would also invite exploring the indigenous sources of knowledge, history, culture especially the folk wisdom and aspirations of common people.</p> <p>Pakistan Perspectives seeks to advance knowledge about the history and society of Pakistan, based on empirical, theoretical and analytical approaches. It provides a forum for understanding, envisaging and proposing academic solution to all the critical issues faced by citizens of Pakistan in particular.</p> Pakistan Study Centre, University of Karachi en-US Pakistan Perspective 1810-5858 75 Years of Pakistan <p>The Diamond Jubilee of a country not expected to survive beyond 6 months is a time for retrospection. Pakistan came into existence because a minority was subject to religious discrimination accompanied by violence. As such its identity came to be defined by religion, quite contrary to a Westphalian state. The formulation of the demand for Pakistan was the Two Nation Theory, voiced by both Hindu and Muslim political leaders. Pakistan was disadvantaged at creation by the Radcliffe Award 1947 and the burden of a province separated from the mainland by a 1000 miles. It came into being in the Cold War Era, it passed from the bipolar to the unipolar to the now multipolar world. Pakistan survives as a nuclear, but poor nation. It has a sizeable population and strategic position, but caught now, in a pandemic, a deluge and debt trap in turn. The survival of Pakistan has become necessary for the stability of the emerging world order and its proverbial resilience is being put to its highest test.</p> Dr Muhammad Reza Kazimi Copyright (c) 2023 Pakistan Perspective 2023-03-08 2023-03-08 27 2 The Need of Informal Justice System in Pakistan <p>In Pakistan, the informal justice system, such as Jirga, Panchayat and Faislo, is often discarded in favour of the formal justice system, and even though the informal justice system is heavily criticized but it is subject to being reformed and implemented in accordance with the constitution of Pakistan as well as the international human rights standards. The implementation of the informal justice system can offer many advantages such as easy access to the justice, lessening the burden of the already overburdened courts, and revival of people’s trust on the system. The informal justice system has historical roots in the society of Pakistan, and by involving community through participatory decision making can make it acceptable to all the stakeholders in the society. The present article will also consider the model of India with respect to the implementation of the informal justice system by establishing Nyaya Panchayat or Panchayat courts, and providing it with constitutional cover. It also attempts to address the criticism offered against the implementation of the informal justice system, and discusses its adherence and acceptance by the United Nations if it does not violate human rights, and provides an easy alternative to the formal justice system, especially in case of lack of capacity or geographical reach.</p> Sohail Ahmed Mashori Copyright (c) 2023 Pakistan Perspective 2023-03-08 2023-03-08 27 2 Impact of Ethical Leadership and Ethical Climate on Employee Engagement in Higher Education Institutions of Pakistan: A Case Study of District Sukkur and Khairpur Institutions <p>The competitiveness and success of an institution are fuelled by an engaged faculty. Compared to most other organisations, higher education institutions are more reliant on the intellectual, artistic, and emotional commitment of their academic staff. Literature from the past demonstrates that an organization's leadership and workplace culture have a discernible effect on its employees' engagement. Therefore, a study is required to determine how ethical leadership (EL) and ethical climate (EC) affect employee engagement (EE) in Pakistani higher education institutions. To better understand teaching faculty engagement in higher education institutions, this study is being conducted as a case study of institutions in the districts of Sukkur and Khairpur. Using descriptive statistics, reliability analysis, correlation analysis, and regression analysis, data from a closed-ended survey was analysed. The findings of this study indicate that ethical leadership (EL) and ethical climate (EC) have a favourable and significant impact on employee engagement (EE) in higher education institutions in the districts of Sukkur and Khairpur. Shah Abdul Latif University Khairpur and Sukkur Institution of Business Administration, two ‘general category’ higher education institutions, hosted the research. The findings indicate that ethical leadership and an ethical culture have a significant and positive impact on both institutions' teaching faculties.</p> Dr Zeenat Kanwal Shar Dr Muhammad Siddique Dr Mariya Baig Copyright (c) 2023 Pakistan Perspective 2023-03-08 2023-03-08 27 2 Attitudes of High School Students towards Egalitarian and Traditional Gender Roles <p>The present study analyzes magnitude of attitudes towards egalitarian and traditional gender roles in 9<sup>th</sup> and 10<sup>th</sup> grade high school male and female students, aged 14-18 years. Urdu version of an adapted scale was used to collect data on attitudes towards gender roles with the prier permission of the author. A three-way mixed factorial design and Analyses of Variance (ANOVA) were used for data analysis. The results showed main effect for gender roles, gender and age. Attitudes towards egalitarian gender roles were stronger than traditional gender roles. Female students expressed significantly stronger attitudes towards gender roles over male students. And though a main effect of age was revealed, post-hoc test only showed a stronger attitudes towards traditional gender role in 16-year over 18-year old participants. No other differences in attitudes across age groups were found. The authors indicate that young students (32%) had stronger attitudes towards egalitarian over traditional gender roles, and female students (8.5%) have stronger attitudes towards gender roles are based on education, familial influences and media.</p> Farah Adil Prof. Dr Ra’ana Malik Copyright (c) 2023 Pakistan Perspective 2023-03-09 2023-03-09 27 2 Socio-Economic Impact of Sutlej Valley Project (SVP) on Princely State of Bahawalpur: A Historical Review <p>The aim of this study is to highlight the significance of Sutlej Valley Project (SVP), a colonial mega canal colonization scheme launched by the British India in 1922-33, in order to irrigate Punjab, Princely States, Bahawalpur &amp; Bikaner. State Bahawalpur possess princely status in British India from 1748-1947. It had a glorious history with its popular Nawabs. In 1892, Bahawalpur possessed around 50 major &amp; medium canals with a total length of 1800km with population of 6.5 lac. From 1748-1947 it was ruled by twelve Nawabs, who contributed whole heartedly for development and welfare of the State. Nawab Sir Sadiq was visionary leader like others predecessor, Nawab Sadiq was keen for the development work and launched a flagship project, Sutlej Valley Project (SVP) 1922. It was a landmark achievement for the prosperity of the State, specially, in the Socio-Economic &amp; Agro-Economy of the State. Post SVP, Revenue of the State was more than double &amp; agriculture land extends four times. Bahawalpur initiated the SVP by adopting modern canal systems &amp; planned to build in order to cater the needs of people living in desert region including urban &amp; rural areas.</p> Dr Mian Saeed Ahmad Asif Usman Copyright (c) 2023 Pakistan Perspective 2023-03-08 2023-03-08 27 2 The Post 2014 Indo-Afghan Nexus: Implications for Pakistan <p>The paper provides with an analysis of the post-2014 Indo-Afghan nexus and its implications on Pakistan. In doing so, it investigates India’s engagement in the internal &amp; external affairs of Pakistan; it’s Cold Start Doctrine, and ultimately Pakistan’s response to the said events. In addition, the paper also analyses India’s role in CPEC, its huge investment in Iran and Afghanistan, and its overall foreign policy in the region with particular reference to Pakistan. Furthermore, the paper comes up with some policy recommendations as to what measures should Pakistan adopt to hamper Indian Foreign Policy in the region; especially how Pakistan would be able to counter Indo-Afghan close nexus.</p> Taimoor Mughal Prof. Dr Aurangzaib Alamgir Sami-ul-Haq Copyright (c) 2023 Pakistan Perspective 2023-03-08 2023-03-08 27 2