Pakistan Perspective <p>Pakistan Perspectives is a bi-annual research journal of the Pakistan Study Centre, University of Karachi. It is a multi-disciplinary journal. The multitude of problems and challenges faced by Pakistan require such a broader approach. Pakistan Perspectives, therefore, provides a forum for debate and discussion on all subjects that come within the scope of Pakistan Studies and lead to a better appreciation of Pakistan’s historical, political, socio-economic and cultural realties.</p> <p>Pakistan Perspectives devotes itself to publish quality research on past, present and future of Pakistan. It would encourage original scholarship, critical thinking, a progressive outlook and a rational balanced focus on all aspects of ours existence as a nation. It invites academia and civil society to engage in dialogue on national issues. It would also invite exploring the indigenous sources of knowledge, history, culture especially the folk wisdom and aspirations of common people.</p> <p>Pakistan Perspectives seeks to advance knowledge about the history and society of Pakistan, based on empirical, theoretical and analytical approaches. It provides a forum for understanding, envisaging and proposing academic solution to all the critical issues faced by citizens of Pakistan in particular.</p> Pakistan Study Centre, University of Karachi en-US Pakistan Perspective 1810-5858 Hybrid Energy Sources and Pakistan’s Energy Crisis: Opportunities and Challenges for Climate and Energy Sustainability <p>An energy transition is a prerequisite and considered of paramount significance to meet the goal of climate and energy security sustainability. This transition is hardly conceivable without acknowledging the massive worldwide potential of renewable energy. Power outage in Pakistan that is caused primarily by insufficient and expensive power generation, line losses, and ineffective planning has escalated Pakistan’s energy crisis. Almost every single sector of national economy has been adversely affected because of this excessive power outage. Recent floods in Pakistan, one of the outcomes of climate change, have necessitated incorporation of clean energy fuels to ensure climate sustainability. Keeping the magnanimity of the crisis in consideration, Islamabad has adopted some remedial measures to overcome this energy crisis but the problem still persists and requires pragmatic policies. The under-utilized renewable potential and power generation by expensive imported fossil fuels has led to excessive increase in cost of energy generation and climate deterioration. However, it is imperative for the government to adopt appropriate and workable solutions to address the energy crisis adequately. This is a qualitative study that employs content analysis technique to explore the dynamics of Pakistan’s energy security and climate sustainability in a substantive manner. This paper is aimed at exploring the inherent potential of Pakistan in renewable energy (RE) not only to mitigate Pakistan’s energy crisis but also to ensure sustainability in climate and energy security. Moreover, this study presents critical evaluation of the appropriate sites of wind and solar power plants in Pakistan. Last but not the least, it proposes short and long term remedial measures to mitigate if not to overcome this energy crisis entirely.</p> Arfan Mahmood Copyright (c) 2024 Pakistan Perspective 2024-02-29 2024-02-29 28 2 Using Artificial Intelligence (AI) in Cultural Diplomacy and Public Sector of Pakistan <p>In this digital age, Pakistan can create a progressive and positive image by utilizing Artificial Intelligence (AI). Artificial Intelligence (AI) integration presents an opportunity to digitalize various fields, spur innovation, and advance Pakistan's sustainable development. Pakistan, like many emerging nations, has a number of issues that impede its development into a strong and sustainable state. However, there is a chance to use the rapid technological breakthroughs, notably in AI, to get around these challenges. By analyzing case studies, different startups and wide scholarly exploration, this article examines the likely interventions of AI in public sector such as cultural diplomacy, healthcare, education, governance, technology transfer, and economic development. Pakistan can reconstruct its infrastructure, enhance service delivery, and eventually become a technology-driven country by implementing ethically informed AI-driven solutions.</p> Jam Bilal Ahmad Malik Akhtar Hussain Copyright (c) 2024 Pakistan Perspective 2024-02-29 2024-02-29 28 2 Establishing the Contemporary Issues of Kalash: Challenges and Way Forward <p>The Kalash, an indigenous ethno-religious group residing in Chitral, Pakistan, holds a significant attraction for tourists worldwide. Every year, a considerable number of tourists flocks to the Kalash valley, which is frequently featured in various advertisements as a means of portraying Pakistan's soft image. The Kalash people live in three distinct Chitral valleys: Bumburat, Rumbur, and Birir. They have unique cultural practices, language, and history. Like many other indigenous communities, the Kalash people face many challenges that impact their social, cultural, economic, and religious worlds. The research aims to develop an understanding of contemporary issues and advocate for meaningful changes. A survey was conducted to gather information on social, political, cultural, economic, and religious issues. Carefully selected respondents (150 in total, including 50 from each valley) highlighted several major Kalash issues. Limited economic opportunities, coupled with environmental challenges, were cited as major concerns. Additionally, the Kalash people struggle to preserve their religious and cultural heritage amidst the influence of the majority and a changing world. They also expressed dissatisfaction with development projects in the region.</p> Wajahat Ali Khan Copyright (c) 2024 Pakistan Perspective 2024-03-10 2024-03-10 28 2 Impact of Coal Rent, Carbon Emissions, Precipitation and Urbanization on Pakistan’s Food Export Performance <p>This study examines the impact of climate change on food exports in Pakistan by employing Johansen cointegration analysis to investigate both long-run and short-run relationships. The study considered urban population, precipitation, coal rent, and carbon emission as four major factors affecting climate change. The findings reveal that coal rents, a measure of the economic benefits of coal mining and use, reduce food exports in the long run. Therefore, the study suggests that as rents affect agriculture, further coal production could harm the environment and affect agriculture that can meet export demand. Similarly, high carbon levels contribute to climate change that can affect agriculture. The results indicate that rapid urbanization increases the pressure on arable land, which can reduce the amount of land available for agriculture and affect the food supply. Further, the study examines that precipitation demonstrates a positive association with food export in the long run, while all other variables display a negative relationship. Overall, this study highlights the crucial need to limit climate change and adopt sustainable agricultural practices to address food export challenges in Pakistan.</p> Abdul Maharij Asma Jabeen Copyright (c) 2024 Pakistan Perspective 2024-03-10 2024-03-10 28 2 British Colonial Policies in the North-West Frontier Region: A Case Study of the Mohmand Uprising, 1897-98 <p>The North-West Frontier region of British India was of great importance in the history of the Indian subcontinent. The NWF region, which was part of British India till 1947 and, from then onward, part of Pakistan, was renamed Khyber Pukhtunkhwa in 2010. Situated at the crossroads of South Asia, Central Asia, and China, the region was of great geographical significance. This study explores the colonial policies implemented in this region shortly before it underwent administrative reform. Focusing on the Mohmand tribal tract, historically governed by various powers including the Ghaznvids, Ghauris, Mughals, Sikhs, and British, the study examines British policies that sparked dissent among the local population. The resultant armed resistance spread to neighbouring regions such as Swat, Malakand, Waziristan, and Khyber. Specifically, this paper explores the Mohmand Uprising of 1897–98, a significant event in NWF history. Central to this uprising was Akhunzada Najm-ud-din, also known as Haddah Mula, who mobilised the Mohmand populace and led attacks on Shankargarh village and Shabqadar fort. Subsequently, the British launched punitive expeditions against Mohmand clans and residents in response to these assaults.</p> Shahid ul Islam Dr Amanullah Khan Copyright (c) 2024 Pakistan Perspective 2024-02-29 2024-02-29 28 2