Hybrid Energy Sources and Pakistan’s Energy Crisis: Opportunities and Challenges for Climate and Energy Sustainability


  • Arfan Mahmood Assistant Professor, Centre for South Asian Studies, University of the Punjab, Lahore, Pakistan


energy transition, renewable energy, power outage, energy crisis, remedial measures, Pakistan


An energy transition is a prerequisite and considered of paramount significance to meet the goal of climate and energy security sustainability. This transition is hardly conceivable without acknowledging the massive worldwide potential of renewable energy. Power outage in Pakistan that is caused primarily by insufficient and expensive power generation, line losses, and ineffective planning has escalated Pakistan’s energy crisis. Almost every single sector of national economy has been adversely affected because of this excessive power outage. Recent floods in Pakistan, one of the outcomes of climate change, have necessitated incorporation of clean energy fuels to ensure climate sustainability. Keeping the magnanimity of the crisis in consideration, Islamabad has adopted some remedial measures to overcome this energy crisis but the problem still persists and requires pragmatic policies. The under-utilized renewable potential and power generation by expensive imported fossil fuels has led to excessive increase in cost of energy generation and climate deterioration. However, it is imperative for the government to adopt appropriate and workable solutions to address the energy crisis adequately. This is a qualitative study that employs content analysis technique to explore the dynamics of Pakistan’s energy security and climate sustainability in a substantive manner. This paper is aimed at exploring the inherent potential of Pakistan in renewable energy (RE) not only to mitigate Pakistan’s energy crisis but also to ensure sustainability in climate and energy security. Moreover, this study presents critical evaluation of the appropriate sites of wind and solar power plants in Pakistan. Last but not the least, it proposes short and long term remedial measures to mitigate if not to overcome this energy crisis entirely.